Cardiovascular disorders refer to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina), or stroke. Other heart conditions, such as those that affect your heart's muscle, valves or rhythm, also are considered forms of heart disease.
There are many types of cardiovascular disorders including:
1. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease and occurs when the coronary arteries become hardened and narrowed due to the buildup of plaque on the inner walls or lining of the arteries (atherosclerosis). This can cause decreased blood flow, which can damage the heart muscle leading to a heart attack.
2. Heart Failure: This is a condition where the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. It does not mean that the heart has stopped working, but rather it is not working as efficiently as it should.
3. Arrhythmia: This refers to an irregular heartbeat. There are several types of arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, and bradycardia among others.
4. Heart Valve Disease: The human heart has four valves and any one of them can develop problems leading to underperformance in pumping blood.
5. Congenital Heart Disease: These are problems with the heart's structure that are present at birth. They may involve the interior walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, or the arteries and veins that carry blood to the heart or out to the body.
6. Peripheral Arterial Disease: This happens when there's a buildup of fats and cholesterol in your artery walls, which limits blood flow to your limbs.
7. Stroke: A stroke occurs when there is an interruption of blood supply to part of your brain due to a blocked or burst blood vessel.
Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases include age, sex, family history, smoking, poor diet, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol levels, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and excessive alcohol use.
Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders involve lifestyle changes such as eating a healthy diet, regular exercise, quitting smoking, controlling high blood pressure and diabetes, and taking prescribed medication as directed. In some cases, surgical procedures may be necessary.