What are the symptoms of salmonella infection?

Sun, May 2022
Anonymous Sun, May 2022

According to the CDC, most people with Salmonella infection have diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps.

Symptoms usually begin six hours to six days after infection and last four to seven days. However, some people do not develop symptoms for several weeks after infection and others experience symptoms for several weeks.

Salmonella strains sometimes cause infection in urine, blood, bones, joints, or the nervous system (spinal fluid and brain), and can cause severe disease.

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What to do if you have intraocular hypertension?

Tue, Dec 2023
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Intraocular hypertension refers to the condition where the pressure in your eyes is higher than normal. It can lead to glaucoma and permanent vision loss if not treated. If you have been diagnosed with intraocular hypertension, here are some steps you should take: 1. Regular Check-ups: Regular eye examinations are crucial for monitoring the pressure in your eyes. Your ophthalmologist will use a device called a tonometer to measure your intraocular pressure (IOP). 2. Medication: Your doctor may prescribe eye drops that decrease eye pressure either by slowing the production of fluids within the eye or by improving the flow exiting the drainage angle. 3. Healthy Lifestyle: Maintain a healthy lifestyle which includes regular exercise and a balanced diet. Some studies suggest that moderate exercise like jogging or walking three times a week can help lower intraocular pressure. 4. Limit Caffeine: High amounts of caffeine can increase eye pressure, so it's recommended to limit your intake. 5. Stay Hydrated: Drink fluids slowly throughout the day; drinking large amounts quickly can temporarily increase eye pressure. 6. Sleep Position: Using a wedge pillow to elevate your head while sleeping can reduce intraocular pressure. 7. Avoid Certain Yoga Positions: Some yoga positions, like headstands, can increase eye pressure and should be avoided. 8. Follow Doctor’s Instructions: Always follow your doctor's instructions regarding medication and lifestyle changes. 9. Regular Monitoring: Keep track of changes in your vision or appearance of your eyes and report them to your doctor immediately. 10. Surgery or Laser Treatment: In some cases, if medications are not effective in controlling intraocular hypertension, doctors may recommend surgery or laser treatment to create a new drainage channel for fluid in the eye or to destroy tissues in the eye that are responsible for fluid production. Remember, early detection and treatment of high eye pressure can help prevent nerve damage and vision loss, making regular check-ups essential.
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What to do to avoid eye tension increase?

Tue, Dec 2023

There are a few things you can do to avoid eye tension increase:

  • Take frequent breaks. Look away from your screen every 20 minutes or so and focus on something in the distance for at least 20 seconds. This will help to reduce eye strain and fatigue.
  • Adjust the brightness of your screen. The brightness of your screen should be set so that it is comfortable to look at, but not so bright that it is glaring.
  • Adjust the contrast of your screen. The contrast of your screen should be set so that the text and images are easy to see, but not so high that it is difficult to focus on them.
  • Use a glare-reducing screen protector. A glare-reducing screen protector can help to reduce the amount of glare from your screen, which can make it easier to see and reduce eye strain.
  • Use a pair of computer glasses. Computer glasses are designed to help reduce eye strain and fatigue by filtering out the blue light emitted from computer screens.
  • Get regular eye exams. Regular eye exams can help to identify any eye problems that could be causing eye strain, and can help to prevent or slow down the progression of these problems.
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1. Regular Breaks: If you spend a lot of time on the computer or doing other close-up work, take regular breaks. The 20-20-20 rule can be helpful: every 20 minutes, look at something 20 feet away for at least 20 seconds. 2. Proper Lighting: Ensure that your workspace has adequate lighting. Poor lighting can strain your eyes and increase tension. 3. Adjust Screen Brightness: If you're using a computer or smartphone, adjust the screen brightness to a comfortable level to reduce eye strain. 4. Blink Often: Blinking helps to moisten the eyes, reducing dryness and irritation. 5. Eye Exercises: Simple eye exercises can help reduce eye tension. For example, you can try rolling your eyes in a circular motion or looking from side to side without moving your head. 6. Correct Prescription: If you wear glasses or contact lenses, make sure your prescription is up-to-date and suitable for viewing a computer screen. 7. Healthy Diet: A diet rich in vitamins A, C and E and minerals like copper and zinc are essential for eye health. 8. Stay Hydrated: Drinking plenty of water can prevent dehydration which may reduce eye strain. 9. Limit Screen Time: Try to limit the amount of time spent on digital devices and take frequent breaks to rest your eyes. 10. Regular Eye Check-ups: Regular eye examinations with an optometrist can help detect any underlying issues that may be causing increased eye tension. 11. Use of Anti-glare Screens or Glasses: These can help reduce the strain on your eyes when using digital devices for extended periods of time. 12. Proper Posture: Maintaining good posture while working on computers or reading reduces stress on the muscles around the eyes thereby reducing eye tension. 13. Adequate Sleep: Getting enough sleep helps rejuvenate all parts of the body including the eyes. Remember that if you're experiencing persistent eye tension, it's important to consult with an eye care professional.
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What not to do when you have intraocular hypertension?

Mon, Dec 2023
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Intraocular hypertension refers to the condition where the pressure in your eyes — the intraocular pressure (IOP) — is higher than normal. Left untreated, high eye pressure can cause glaucoma and permanent vision loss. Here are some things you should not do when you have intraocular hypertension: 1. Avoid Stress: High levels of stress can increase your blood pressure, which in turn can raise your intraocular pressure. 2. Don't Ignore Regular Check-ups: Regular eye examinations are crucial for people with intraocular hypertension as it helps monitor the condition and prevent any potential damage. 3. Avoid Certain Exercises: Some exercises like yoga poses that involve head-down positions can increase eye pressure and should be avoided. 4. Don't Skip Medication: If you've been prescribed medication to control your intraocular pressure, it's important to take it as directed by your doctor. 5. Avoid Excessive Caffeine: High amounts of caffeine can increase eye pressure. 6. Don't Smoke: Smoking is harmful to all aspects of health, including eye health. It may increase the risk of developing glaucoma and other eye-related problems. 7. Avoid Steroids: Long-term use of steroids can cause increased intraocular pressure in some individuals. 8. Don't Strain Your Eyes: Activities that strain your eyes such as excessive reading, looking at a computer screen for long periods, or working in poor light conditions should be avoided. 9. Avoid Heavy Lifting: Heavy lifting or any strenuous activities that involve straining can increase the intraocular pressure. 10. Do Not Neglect Your Diet: A healthy diet is essential for overall health including eye health. Foods rich in antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for eyesight. Remember, if you have been diagnosed with intraocular hypertension, it's important to follow your doctor's advice and treatment plan to prevent any potential damage to your vision.
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What does the CT exam mean?

Wed, Nov 2023

CT stands for computed tomography. It is a medical imaging technique that uses X-rays to create detailed cross-sectional images of the body. CT scans are used to diagnose a wide range of medical conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and stroke.

CT scans are performed on a CT scanner, which is a large machine that rotates around the patient. The X-rays are emitted from a tube inside the scanner and are detected by detectors on the opposite side of the patient. The data from the detectors is used to create a series of cross-sectional images of the body.

CT scans are typically painless and are performed in a hospital or radiology clinic. The patient lies on a table that slides into the scanner. The patient may be asked to hold their breath for a few seconds during the scan.

CT scans are a valuable tool for diagnosing medical conditions. They are quick, painless, and provide detailed images of the body.

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A CT exam, also known as a CT scan or CAT scan, stands for Computed Tomography scan. It is a type of medical imaging procedure that uses special x-ray equipment to create detailed pictures, or scans, of areas inside the body. It can be used to visualize nearly all parts of the body and is used to diagnose disease or injury as well as to plan medical, surgical or radiation treatment. The CT scanner itself is a large, tunnel-like machine that has a table. The patient lies on this table which slides into the tunnel where the x-rays are taken. The x-rays rotate around the body and are captured by digital detectors on the opposite side of the patient. These images are then sent to a computer where they are processed into 2-dimensional cross-sectional images of the body. CT scans provide more detailed information than standard X-rays do and can show several types of tissue with great clarity, including organs like the liver, spleen, pancreas and kidneys. They can also show blood vessels and bones in great detail. The procedure is generally painless and non-invasive but does expose patients to more radiation than regular X-rays. However, modern CT scanners are designed to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure.
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What are the Biological Perspectives of Psychological Disorders

Sat, Nov 2023

Biological perspective of psychological disorders is a perspective that explains psychological disorders in terms of biological factors such as genetics, brain chemistry, and hormones. This perspective is based on the assumption that psychological disorders are caused by abnormalities in the brain or other biological processes.

There are a number of different biological factors that have been linked to psychological disorders. These factors include:

  • Genetics: Studies have shown that there is a genetic component to many psychological disorders. This means that people who have a family history of a particular psychological disorder are more likely to develop that disorder themselves.
  • Brain chemistry: The levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine, have been linked to psychological disorders. For example, people with depression often have low levels of serotonin.
  • Hormones: Hormone levels can also affect mood and behavior. For example, women who experience premenstrual syndrome (PMS) often have mood swings and irritability.

The biological perspective of psychological disorders has been criticized for being too simplistic. Critics argue that psychological disorders are caused by a combination of biological and environmental factors. They also argue that the biological perspective ignores the role of social and psychological factors in the development of psychological disorders.

Despite these criticisms, the biological perspective of psychological disorders has provided important insights into the causes of psychological disorders. This perspective has led to the development of new treatments for psychological disorders, such as medication and brain stimulation therapy.

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Biological perspectives of psychological disorders refer to the view that mental disorders are caused by biological factors such as genetics, chemical imbalances in the brain, and brain structure abnormalities. This perspective is also known as the medical model or biological model of understanding psychopathology. 1. Genetics: Research has shown that many mental disorders have a genetic component. For example, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are both more common in individuals who have a close relative with the disorder. This suggests that these disorders may be inherited. 2. Chemical Imbalances: The brain communicates through chemicals called neurotransmitters. Imbalances in these chemicals can lead to mental disorders. For example, depression has been linked to low levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that regulates mood. 3. Brain Structure: Abnormalities in the structure of the brain can also lead to mental disorders. For example, individuals with schizophrenia often have enlarged ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) in their brains. 4. Infections: Certain infections have been linked to brain damage and the development of mental illness or the worsening of its symptoms. For instance, a condition known as Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS), occurs when strep throat leads to a sudden onset of symptoms such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, tics, personality changes, decline in math and handwriting abilities, sensory sensitivities etc. 5. Prenatal Damage: A disruption of early fetal brain development or trauma that occurs at the time of birth -- for instance, loss of oxygen to the brain -- might be a factor in the development of certain conditions such as autism spectrum disorder. 6. Substance Abuse: Long-term substance abuse, in particular, can lead to anxiety, depression and paranoia. 7. Poor Nutrition and Exposure to Toxins: Poor nutrition and exposure to toxins such as lead during pregnancy may play a role in later cognitive difficulties. These biological perspectives are not mutually exclusive and often interact with each other as well as with environmental factors to lead to the development of psychological disorders. For example, a person might have a genetic vulnerability to depression which is then triggered by a stressful life event. It's important to note that the biological perspective does not negate the importance of psychological and social factors in understanding mental disorders. Rather, it provides one piece of the puzzle in understanding these complex conditions.
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