Although all of us violate norms from time to time, few people would consider themselves deviant. Those who do, however, have often been labeled “deviant” by society and have gradually come to believe it themselves. Labeling theory examines the ascribing of a deviant behavior to another person by members of society. Thus, what is considered deviant is determined not so much by the behaviors themselves or the people who commit them, but by the reactions of others to these behaviors. As a result, what is considered deviant changes over time and can vary significantly across cultures.
Q. According to the paragraph, which of the following best describes the labeling theory?
B is correct because “classification” is another word for “labeling”, and we can find a keyword from the answer in the passage – “reactions”. Some of the other keywords are mentioned throughout the paragraph, but option b summarizes the main concluding statement about the labeling theory. Option a is correct because it is only describing an example of the theory, not the entire theory itself. Option c is wrong because it contradicts the statement made in the passage saying the label is “determined by their own behavior”, and option d is wrong because the theory is not a “categorization of behaviors”.