Meritocracy is another system of social stratification in which personal effort—or merit—determines social standing. High levels of effort will lead to a high social position, and vice versa. The concept of meritocracy is an ideal—that is, a society has never existed where social rank was based purely on merit. Because of the complex structure of societies, processes like socialization, and the realities of economic systems, social standing is influenced by multiple factors, not merit alone. Inheritance and pressure to conform to norms, for instance, disrupt the notion of a pure meritocracy. Sociologists see aspects of meritocracies in modern societies when they study the role of academic performance and job performance, and the systems in place for evaluating and rewarding achievement in these areas.
1. Which of the following best explains meritocracy?
D is correct because we can find the original statement it’s summarizing by looking after the keyword from the question, “meritocracy”, and by finding the keywords, though some are in alternate forms, from the answer – “idealistic”, “social ranking”, and “based on”. Option a is wrong because it is not an “economic system”. Option b and c are wrong because b uses modifiers that are incorrect – “very realistic” – and c alters the word order of other statements, making it untrue.