Absorbance is measured at 2 different wavelengths using light from either single or 2 monochromators that would analyze samples and reference cuvette.
passes light in 2 directions. One beam is directed to the sample and the other beam is directed to the reference cuvette simultaneously.
Double Beam in Space
splits the light using a rotating chopper. As the chopper rotates, it alternatively presents a mirror and an opening that produces an Interval of light towards the cuvettes. One beam is directed to the sample and the other beam is for reference cuvette with an interval of time.
Double Beam in Time
measures the amount of light produced or emitted from excitation of electrons/samples by heat energy (flame)
Atomic Emission (Flame Photometer)
measures the amount of light absorbed by the element/sample in an unexcited state, un-ionized state, neutral atom ground state and dissociated from its chemical bond.
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotomer
measures the amount of light emitted by a substance due to its excitation from a source rendering higher or equal energy from its original state.
occurs from photolumination where electron pairs are excited by electromagnetic radiation,
occurs from photo illumination where electron pairs in the excited state are unpaired.
occurs from the excitation of chemical or electrochemical compounds
it measures the amount of light scattered by a particular solution
it measures the amount of light reduced or blocked by particle formation
It measures the amount of light bent or deflected in a straight path of a particular substance
It measures the amount of dissolved substance in a solution (osmolality)
It measures the amount of light absorbed
It measures the amount of, and properties of cells suspended in a moving fluid medium
It measures electrical current between 2 non-polarized electrodes with a known potential.
It is based on the change of electrical resistance of an aperture as a particle passes through.
it is a branch of chemistry that deals with the relationship of electricity and chemicals.
the measurement of potential (voltage) between 2 electrodes in a solution to measure analyte concentration
an electrochemical titration in which the titrant is electrochemically generated.