mediator of host inflammatory response to infections and other inflammatory stimuli.
These cytokines increase the expression of adhesion factors on endothelial cells to enable transmigration of leukocytes to sites of infection and reset the hypothalamic thermoregulatory center,
Promotes expansion of early blood cells (hematopoiesis) that differentiate into all known mature cell types. Supports growth and differentiation of T cells from bone marrow through immune response.
Has high capacity to induce activation of almost all clones of cytotoxic cells
Increases cytotoxic functions of T killer and NK cells; promotes production of perforins and IFN-γ by these cells.
Activates monocytes-macrophages to synthesize and secrete TNF-α, IL-1β,
IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF, and GM-CSF.
Induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells.
Early activation of resting B cells—upregulates MHC class II production (induces HLA-DR molecules on B cells, macrophages) and governs B cell isotype switching to IgG1 and IgE.
activate eosinophils and serve as link between T cell activation and eosinophilic inflammation.
Growth and differentiation–inducing factor for activated T and B cells; induces class-specific B cell differentiation (IgA production).
Stimulates proliferation of lymphoid progenitors; important for proliferation during certain stages of B cell maturation and in T cell and NK survival, development, and homeostasis.
Functions in innate immunity and adaptive immunity; in the latter, stimulates growth of B cells that have differentiated into antibody producers.
Potent stimulator of neutrophils in chemotaxis. Activates “respiratory burst” and release of specific and azurophilic granular contents.
Promotes proliferation of T cells, thymocytes, and mast cells. Supports proliferation of some T cell lines and of bone marrow–derived mast cell progenitors; supports growth of erythroid blast-forming units.
Although it shares functional properties of enhancing cytotoxic function of NK cells and activated T cells with IL-2; stimulating production of IFN-γ by NK and T cells, stimulating differentiation of naive T cells into Th1 cells, and enhancing cytolytic functions of activated NK cells and CD8+ Tc cells.
Inhibits activated macrophages; displays potent abilities to suppress antigen presenting capacity of APCs; Released by cytotoxic T (Tc) cells to inhibit the actions of NK cells during immune response to viral infection.
Acts in a manner similar to IL-6 on hematopoietic progenitor cells.
synergizes with IL-3 to stimulate production of megakaryocyte and myeloid progenitors and to increase number of g-secreting B lymphocytes in vivo and in vitro.
Possesses many biological effects similar to IL-4 but appears to have less effect on T or B cells than IL-4; inhibit their activation and to antagonize IFN-γ.
Acts as B-cell growth factor (BCGF) in proliferation of normal and cancerous B cells. enables progression of B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL-B); conversely, its antibodies slow down growth of NHL-B
Biologically similar to IL-2; acts as synergist, particularly in LAK cell induction process; increases antitumoral activities of T-killer and NK cells and can be chemoattractant for T lymphocytes; endogenous IL-15 is key condition for IFN-γ synthesis.