Immunology Pre-Matriculation Review Answers
The answers to the questions are shown in blue text.
1. One reason that pathogenic microorganisms have an advantage in the host they
infect is because they:
a) have previously been encountered through natural exposure
b) have previously been encountered through vaccination
c) strengthen the host’s immune response
d) reproduce and evolve more rapidly than the host can eliminate them
e) reproduce and evolve more slowly than the host can eliminate them.
2. Examples of pathogens that cause human disease include:
d) parasites (protozoans and worms)
e) All of the above are examples of pathogens that cause human disease.
3. Which of the following is not associated with mucosal surfaces?
a) mucus-secreting goblet cells
c) M cells
d) white pulp
e) beating cilia
4. Which of the following is not a characteristic of inflammation?
a) inactivation of macrophages
b) increased vascular permeability and edema
e) influx of leukocytes
5. Phagocytosis of either microbes or microbial constituents by macrophages is
followed by the activation of macrophages and the secretion of cytokines. What are
the main effects of these molecules?
The cytokines released by activated macrophages have three principal effects.
Some cytokines act as chemoattractants and recruit other leukocytes into the
infected tissue, for example neutrophils, which efficiently phagocytose and kill
bacteria, forming pus. Other cytokines act on the endothelial cells of local blood
vessels to increase vascular permeability and vasodilation, thus initiating
inflammation of the infected tissue.