The Periodic Table

As early chemists worked to purify ores and discovered more elements, they realized that various elements could be grouped together by their similar chemical behaviors. One such grouping includes lithium (Li), sodium (Na), and potassium (K): These elements all are shiny, conduct heat and electricity well, and have similar chemical properties. A second grouping includes calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), and barium (Ba), which also are shiny, good conductors of heat and electricity, and have chemical properties in common. However, the specific properties of these two groupings are notably different from each other.

Dimitri Mendeleev in Russia (1869) and Lothar Meyer in Germany (1870) independently recognized that there was a periodic relationship among the properties of the elements known at that time. Both published tables with the elements arranged according to increasing atomic mass. But Mendeleev went one step further than Meyer: He used his table to predict the existence of elements that would have the properties similar to aluminum and silicon, but were yet unknown. The discoveries of gallium (1875) and germanium (1886) provided great support for Mendeleev’s work. Although Mendeleev and Meyer had a long dispute over priority, Mendeleev’s contributions to the development of the periodic table are now more widely recognized.

Q. An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Various elements have been grouped in a table based on their physical properties and periodic relationship thanks to a few chemists.

Select All the Correct Answers:
Some of the first chemists discovered that elements could be organized based on their chemical behaviors
Some elements, like lithium and sodium, are shiny and conduct heat and electricity better than others
In the 19th century, a couple chemists discovered the periodic relationship between the properties of certain elements
The elements were organized into tables according to atomic mass
The names of two of the most prominent chemists for their work on the periodic table are Dimitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer


15 Reading Questions for TOEFL Prep - Group 4

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