Description

Group 4 of Reading Questions.

- Reference Questions .

  • This quiz focuses on Reference questions. In the following passages, you will be asked to select the word that is substituted by the referenced pronoun. The aim of these questions is to test your ability to understand what word the given pronoun refers to.

- Fill In a Table Questions

  • This quiz focuses on Fill In a Table questions. You will be given an introductory sentence for your summary and you will be asked to select three different sentences that correspond to the main points made by the author. The aim of these questions is to test your ability to summarize the information given in a text and extract the main ideas that the author presents.
Study Set Content:
1- Question

Technological Globalization

Technological globalization is impacted in large part by technological diffusion, the spread of technology across borders. In the last two decades, there has been rapid improvement in the spread of technology to peripheral and semi-peripheral nations, and a 2008 World Bank report discusses both the benefits and ongoing challenges of this diffusion. In general, the report found that technological progress and economic growth rates were linked, and that the rise in technological progress has helped improve the situations of many living in absolute poverty. The report recognizes that rural and low-tech products such as corn can benefit from new technological innovations, and that, conversely, technologies like mobile banking can aid those whose rural existence consists of low-tech market vending. In addition, technological advances in areas like mobile phones can lead to competition, lowered prices, and concurrent improvements in related areas such as mobile banking and information sharing.

Q. The words this diffusion refers to …

Select the Correct Answer:
The spread of technology
A 2008 World Bank report
The last two decades
Rapid improvement
2- Question

The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is based on the idea that people experience their world through their language, and that they therefore understand their world through the culture embedded in their language. The hypothesis, which has also been called linguistic relativity, states that language shapes thought. Studies have shown, for instance, that unless people have access to the word “ambivalent,” they don’t recognize an experience of uncertainty due to conflicting positive and negative feelings about one issue. Essentially, the hypothesis argues, if a person can’t describe the experience, the person is not having the experience.

Q. The word they refers to …

Select the Correct Answer:
Studies
People
Positive and negative feelings
Shapes
3- Question

Hunter-Gatherer

Hunter-gatherer societies demonstrate the strongest dependence on the environment of the various types of preindustrial societies. As the basic structure of human society until about 10,000–12,000 years ago, these groups were based around kinship or tribes. Hunter-gatherers relied on their surroundings for survival—they hunted wild animals and foraged for uncultivated plants for food. When resources became scarce, the group moved to a new area to find sustenance, meaning they were nomadic. These societies were common until several hundred years ago, but today only a few hundred remain in existence, such as indigenous Australian tribes sometimes referred to as “aborigines,” or the Bambuti, a group of pygmy hunter-gatherers residing in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Hunter-gatherer groups are quickly disappearing as the world’s population explodes.

Q. The phrase these groups refers to …

Select the Correct Answer:
Human society
Years ago
Preindustrial societies
Hunter-gatherer societies
4- Question

Cultural Imperialism

A high level of appreciation for one’s own culture can be healthy; a shared sense of community pride, for example, connects people in a society. But ethnocentrism can lead to disdain or dislike for other cultures, causing misunderstanding and conflict. People with the best intentions sometimes travel to a society to “help” its people, seeing them as uneducated or backward; essentially inferior. In reality, these travelers are guilty of cultural imperialism, the deliberate imposition of one’s own cultural values on another culture. Europe’s colonial expansion, begun in the 16th century, was often accompanied by a severe cultural imperialism. European colonizers often viewed the people in the lands they colonized as uncultured savages who were in need of European governance, dress, religion, and other cultural practices. A more modern example of cultural imperialism may include the work of international aid agencies who introduce agricultural methods and plant species from developed countries while overlooking indigenous varieties and agricultural approaches that are better suited to the particular region.

Q. The words these travelers refer to …

Select the Correct Answer:
Its people
Them
Cultural values
People with the best intentions
5- Question

Measuring Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is measured using a device called a sphygmomanometer (Greek sphygmos = “pulse”). It consists of an inflatable cuff to restrict blood flow, a manometer to measure the pressure, and a method of determining when blood flow begins and when it becomes impeded. Since its invention in 1881, it has been an essential medical device.

Q. The word its refers to …

Select the Correct Answer:
A method
A manometer
An inflatable cuff
A sphygmomanometer
6- Question

Energy Basics

Chemical changes and their accompanying changes in energy are important parts of our everyday world. The macronutrients in food (proteins, fats, and carbohydrates) undergo metabolic reactions that provide the energy to keep our bodies functioning. We burn a variety of fuels (gasoline, natural gas, coal) to produce energy for transportation, heating, and the generation of electricity. Industrial chemical reactions use enormous amounts of energy to produce raw materials (such as iron and aluminum). Energy is then used to manufacture those raw materials into useful products, such as cars, skyscrapers, and bridges.

Q. An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Chemical reactions are accompanied by important energy changes that humans rely on.

Select All the Correct Answers:
Chemical changes are necessary for life on Earth
Metabolic reactions in the nutrients in food supply the energy humans need
Gasoline, natural gas, and coal are some forms of fuel that we use
In order to produce raw materials, we require the energy from industrial chemical reactions
Raw materials are used to produce cars, skyscrapers, and bridges
7- Question

Components of Language

According to the drive theory of motivation, deviations from homeostasis create physiological needs. These needs result in psychological drive states that direct behavior to meet the need and, ultimately, bring the system back to homeostasis. For example, if it’s been a while since you ate, your blood sugar levels will drop below normal. This low blood sugar will induce a physiological need and a corresponding drive state (i.e., hunger) that will direct you to seek out and consume food.

Eating will eliminate the hunger, and, ultimately, your blood sugar levels will return to normal. Interestingly, drive theory also emphasizes the role that habits play in the type of behavioral response in which we engage. A habit is a pattern of behavior in which we regularly engage. Once we have engaged in a behavior that successfully reduces a drive, we are more likely to engage in that behavior whenever faced with that drive in the future.

Q. An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

The drive theory of motivation proposes that humans are driven to certain behaviors by a need to return to a state of homeostasis.

Select All the Correct Answers:
Eating satisfies hunger by balancing our blood sugar levels
A straying away from homeostasis, or what we consider normal, causes a psychological need to return to that normal state
Habit has a role in this theory in that it also drives humans to certain behaviors
Once a habit is developed, it is normal for humans to engage in that habitual behavior to reduce a particular drive or need
A habit is defined as a pattern of behavior in which humans engage frequently
8- Question

SIDS

In sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) an infant stops breathing during sleep and dies. Infants younger than 12 months appear to be at the highest risk for SIDS, and boys have a greater risk than girls. A number of risk factors have been associated with SIDS including premature birth, smoking within the home, and hyperthermia. There may also be differences in both brain structure and function in infants that die from SIDS.

The substantial amount of research on SIDS has led to a number of recommendations to parents to protect their children. For one, research suggests that infants should be placed on their backs when put down to sleep, and their cribs should not contain any items which pose suffocation threats, such as blankets, pillows or padded crib bumpers (cushions that cover the bars of a crib). Infants should not have caps placed on their heads when put down to sleep in order to prevent overheating, and people in the child’s household should abstain from smoking in the home. Recommendations like these have helped to decrease the number of infant deaths from SIDS in recent years.

Q. An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

SIDS, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, involves various risk factors, some of which can be controlled.

Select All the Correct Answers:
Children under a year old, particularly boys, have the highest risk of dying from SIDS
Various factors can increase the risk of a SIDS death
Research suggests lying babies on their backs to sleep and removing any suffocation hazards from the crib
The number of deaths from SIDS has gone down in recent years due to parents following safety recommendations
It is advised that parents remove blankets, pillows, and cushions from the crib
9- Question

The Periodic Table

As early chemists worked to purify ores and discovered more elements, they realized that various elements could be grouped together by their similar chemical behaviors. One such grouping includes lithium (Li), sodium (Na), and potassium (K): These elements all are shiny, conduct heat and electricity well, and have similar chemical properties. A second grouping includes calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), and barium (Ba), which also are shiny, good conductors of heat and electricity, and have chemical properties in common. However, the specific properties of these two groupings are notably different from each other.

Dimitri Mendeleev in Russia (1869) and Lothar Meyer in Germany (1870) independently recognized that there was a periodic relationship among the properties of the elements known at that time. Both published tables with the elements arranged according to increasing atomic mass. But Mendeleev went one step further than Meyer: He used his table to predict the existence of elements that would have the properties similar to aluminum and silicon, but were yet unknown. The discoveries of gallium (1875) and germanium (1886) provided great support for Mendeleev’s work. Although Mendeleev and Meyer had a long dispute over priority, Mendeleev’s contributions to the development of the periodic table are now more widely recognized.

Q. An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Various elements have been grouped in a table based on their physical properties and periodic relationship thanks to a few chemists.

Select All the Correct Answers:
Some of the first chemists discovered that elements could be organized based on their chemical behaviors
Some elements, like lithium and sodium, are shiny and conduct heat and electricity better than others
In the 19th century, a couple chemists discovered the periodic relationship between the properties of certain elements
The elements were organized into tables according to atomic mass
The names of two of the most prominent chemists for their work on the periodic table are Dimitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer
10- Question

Human Movement

Human movement includes not only actions at the joints of the body, but also the motion of individual organs and even individual cells. As you read these words, red and white blood cells are moving throughout your body, muscle cells are contracting and relaxing to maintain your posture and to focus your vision, and glands are secreting chemicals to regulate body functions. Your body is coordinating the action of entire muscle groups to enable you to move air into and out of your lungs, to push blood throughout your body, and to propel the food you have eaten through your digestive tract. Consciously, of course, you contract your skeletal muscles to move the bones of your skeleton to get from one place to another, and to carry out all of the activities of your daily life.

Q. An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Even when you think you are being still, every bodily process involves movement.

Select All the Correct Answers:
Human bodies can move at the joints
In fact, human organs and cells move individually
An activity as simple as reading involves the movement of red and white blood cells, muscle cells, and glands
Some human movement occurs consciously, like walking from one place to another
Breathing involves the movement of the lungs as well as entire muscle groups
11- Question

Meteorite Impact and Dinosaur Extinction

There is increasing evidence that the impacts of meteorites have had important effects on Earth, particularly in the field of biological evolution. Such impacts continue to pose a natural hazard to life on Earth. Twice in the twentieth century, large meteorite objects are known to have collided with Earth.

If an impact is large enough, it can disturb the environment of the entire Earth and cause an ecological catastrophe. The best-documented such impact took place 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period of geological history. This break in Earth's history is marked by a mass extinction, when as many as half the species on the planet became extinct. While there are a dozen or more mass extinctions in the geological record, the Cretaceous mass extinction has always intrigued paleontologists because it marks the end of the age of the dinosaurs. For tens of millions of years, those great creatures had flourished. Then, suddenly, they disappeared.

The body that impacted Earth at the end of the Cretaceous period was a meteorite with a mass of more than a trillion tons and a diameter of at least 10 kilometers. Scientists first identified this impact in 1980 from the worldwide layer of sediment deposited from the dust cloud that enveloped the planet after the impact. This sediment layer is enriched in the rare metal iridium and other elements that are relatively abundant in a meteorite but very rare in the crust of Earth. Even diluted by the terrestrial material excavated from the crater, this component of meteorites is easily identified. By 1990 geologists had located the impact site itself in the Yucatán region of Mexico. The crater, now deeply buried in sediment, was originally about 200 kilometers in diameter.

This impact released an enormous amount of energy, excavating a crater about twice as large as the lunar crater Tycho. The explosion lifted about 100 trillion tons of dust into the atmosphere, as can be determined by measuring the thickness of the sediment layer formed when this dust settled to the surface. Such a quantity of material would have blocked the sunlight completely from reaching the surface, plunging Earth into a period of cold and darkness that lasted at least several months. The explosion is also calculated to have produced vast quantities of nitric acid and melted rock that sprayed out over much of Earth, starting widespread fires that must have consumed most terrestrial forests and grassland. Presumably, those environmental disasters could have been responsible for the mass extinction, including the death of the dinosaurs. Several other mass extinctions in the geological record have been tentatively identified with large impacts, but none is so dramatic as the Cretaceous event. But even without such specific documentation, it is clear that impacts of this size do occur and that their results can be catastrophic. What is a catastrophe for one group of living things, however, may create opportunities for another group. Following each mass extinction, there is a sudden evolutionary burst as new species develop to fill the ecological niches opened by the event.

Impacts by meteorites represent one mechanism that could cause global catastrophes and seriously influence the evolution of life all over the planet. According to some estimates, the majority of all extinctions of species may be due to such impacts. Such a perspective fundamentally changes our view of biological evolution. The standard criterion for the survival of a species is its success in competing with other species and adapting to slowly changing environments. Yet an equally important criterion is the ability of a species to survive random global ecological catastrophes due to impacts.

Earth is a target in a cosmic shooting gallery, subject to random violent events that were unsuspected a few decades ago. In 1991 the United States Congress asked NASA to investigate the hazard posed today by large impacts on Earth. The group conducting the study concluded from a detailed analysis that impacts from meteorites can indeed be hazardous. Although there is always some risk that a large impact could occur, careful study shows that this risk is quite small.

Q: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE (3) answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage.

Scientists have linked the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous with a meteorite impact on Earth.

Select All the Correct Answers:
An iridium-enriched sediment layer and a large impact crater in the Yucatán provide evidence that a large meteorite struck Earth about 65 million years ago.
Large meteorite impacts, such as one at the end of the Cretaceous period, can seriously affect climate, ecological niches, plants, and animals.
Meteorite impacts can be advantageous for some species, which thrive, and disastrous for other species, which become extinct.
There have also been large meteorite impacts on the surface of the Moon, leaving craters like Tycho.
The site of the large meteorite impact at the end of the Cretaceous period was identified in 1990.
12- Question

Baseball has been dubbed “America’s favorite sport”,and many fans contend that there is no greater thrill than watching a good pitcher throw the ball skillfully in a series of expertly delivered “fast” and “curve” balls. Two such pitches, the “rising fastball” and the 5 “breaking curveball” are particularly exasperating to batters because these balls tend to veer in one direction or the other just as they reach home plate. The “rising fastball” zooms forward only to jump up and over the bat as the batter swings. The “breaking curveball” curves toward home plate, but plunges downward unexpectedly at the 10 last moment. Batters attempt to anticipate these pitches, and respond accordingly, while pitchers work at perfecting their “fast” and “curve” ball deliveries.

But, according to studies conducted by a team of engineers and psychologists, 15 the “rising fastball” and the “breaking curveball” do not actually exist; they are merely optical illusions. The studies revealed that batters perceive the ball as approaching more slowly or falling more quickly than it actually is, and it is this misperception that produces the visual illusion. Batters tend to have difficulty tracking a ball 20 continuously as it approaches and will briefly divert their eyes to the spot where they think the ball will cross the plate. When a batter has misjudged the speed or angle of a pitch, and shifts his or her gaze in this way, the ball will appear to suddenly rise or dip, and the batter will often miss.

25 How will this finding affect “America’s favorite pastime”? No doubt some will vehemently reject the notion that the “rising fastball” and the “breaking curveball” are mere illusions. But for others, the findings may imbue the game with a new level of intrigue as batters 30 attempt to respond to pitches that don’t exist.

what does the word the bold “they” refer to?

Select the Correct Answer:
the “rising fastball” and the “breaking curveball”
the engineers and psychologists
the research studies
the optical illusions
13- Question

Read the text and answer the questions.

However, this is countered by two factors. Firstly, certain scientific institutions wish to maintain a degree of status as ‘bearers of truth’. Further, policy makers uphold this understanding by requesting scientific certainties in order to legitimise their policy decisions.

Q: The bold pronoun ‘this’ refers to…

Select the Correct Answer:
the scientific method and its inherent problems.
the belief that scientists cannot reveal universal truths.
the variation in scientific results under different circumstances.
the list of factors which influence scientific research.
14- Question

Fred told Tony that polka-dotted underwear was showing through the ripped seat of his dress pants.

Select the Correct Answer:
The sentence does NOT contain a pronoun reference error.
The sentence DOES contain a pronoun reference error.
15- Question

Brendan's snoring was so loud that he distracted everyone in class from the exciting pronoun reference lecture.

Select the Correct Answer:
The sentence does NOT contain a pronoun reference error.
The sentence DOES contain a pronoun reference error.
thumb_up_alt Subscribers
layers 15 Items
folder English Category
0.00
0 Reviews