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In this collection there is a bunch of questions in PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY

This helps English literature students prepare for the exam

Study Set Content:
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.

                                                   

MODEL

 

QUESTION

 

PAPER

 

                                                      

B.A.DEGREE

 

PROGRAMME

 

END

 

SEMESTER

 

EVALUVATION

 

                                                                             

Semester

     

11

                                                          

                                                                  

Compl.

 

Course111

 

LINGUISTICS

 

                                                                          

Course

 

Code

 

LN

 

1231

 

                                                                  

PHONETICS

 

AND

 

PHONOLOGY

  

    

                                                                         

              

Time:3

 

Hrs

                                                                                                                            

Maximum

 

Marks

 

:80

    

                                                                                           

Section

 

A

     

                

Answer

 

all

 

questions

 

(

 

in

 

a

 

word

 

to

 

maximum

 

of

 

two

 

sentences).

 

1.

 

Variant

 

forms

 

of

 

a

 

phoneme

 

are

 

called

 ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐

.

 

2.

 

What

 

are

 

the

 

nasal

 

sounds

 

in

 

English?

 

3.

 

Distinguish

 

between

 

active

 

and

 

passive

 

articulators?

 

4.

 

What

 

are

 

the

 

different

 

branches

 

of

 

Phonetics?

 

5.

 

Give

 

the

 

manner

 

of

 

articulation

 

for

 

the

 

sound

 

/p/.

 

6.

 

What

 

are

 

the

 

close

 

vowels

 

in

 

English?

 

7.

 

Distinguish

 

between

 

eggressive

 

and

 

ingressive

 

air

stream

 

mechanisms.

 

8.

 

What

 

is

 

IPA?

 

9.

 

What

 

is

 

intonation?

 

10.

 

Differentiate

 

between

 

diphthongs

 

and

 

clusters.

 

 

.

  

                                                                                                                     

(10x1=10markst)

                                                         

                                                             

SECTION

 

B

 

                       

Give

 

short

 

answers

 

to

 

any

 

eight

 

questions

.(Not

 

to

 

exceed

 

one

 

paragraph)

 

.

 

11.

 

How

 

the

 

vocal

 

cords

 

change

 

the

 

quality

 

of

 

sound?

 

12.

 

What

 

is

 

meant

 

by

 

transcription?

 

13.

 

What

 

is

 

meant

 

by

 

aspirated

 

plosive?

 

What

 

are

 

the

 

aspirated

 

plosives

 

in

 

Malayalam?

 

2- Page
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14.

 

How

 

fricative

 

sounds

 

are

 

produced?

 

Give

 

examples

 

from

 

English.

 

15.

 

Give

 

the

 

phonetic

 

descriptions

 

for

 

the

 

sounds

 

/s/,

 

/h/,

 

/v/and

 

/g/?

 

16.

 

Distinguish

 

between

 

open

 

syllable

 

and

 

closed

 

syllable.

 

17.

 

What

 

is

 

meant

 

by

 

free

 

variation?

 

18.

 

What

 

is

 

meant

 

by

 

phonatory

 

system?

 

19.

 

What

 

are

 

the

 

functions

 

of

 

vocal

 

cords?

 

20.

 

Explain

 

the

 

pulmonic

 

air

stream

 

mechanism.

 

21.

 

Define

 

Phonemes

 

with

 

examples.

 

22.

 

Distinguish

 

between

 

phonetics

 

and

 

phonology.

 

                                                                                                     

(8x2=16

 

Marks)

 

 

                                       

                                                         

Section

 

C

 

                                 

Write

 

six

 

short

 

essays

 

(Not

 

to

 

exceed

   

120

 

words)

 

23.

 

Explain

 

cardinal

 

vowels

 

with

 

examples.

 

24.

 

Write

 

a

 

note

 

on

 

diphthongs.

 

Give

 

examples

 

from

 

English.

 

24.

 

Explain

 

syllables.

 

25.

 

How

 

many

 

back

 

vowels

 

in

 

English?

 

Indicate

 

their

 

tongue

 

positions.

 

26.

 

Distinguish

 

between

 

Laterals

 

and

 

fricatives.

 

27.

 

What

 

are

 

the

 

prosodic

 

features?.

 

28.

 

Distinguish

 

between

 

phonologically

 

conditioning

 

and

 

morphologically

 

conditioning?

 

29.

 

What

 

is

 

meant

 

by

 

phonotactis?

 

30.

 

How

 

the

 

vowels

 

in

 

English

 

are

 

classified?

                           

31.

 

Write

 

the

 

retroflex

 

sounds

 

in

 

Malayalam.

    

                                                                                                              

(6x4=24

 

marks

 

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Section

 

D

 

                                           

Write

 

any

 

two

 

long

 

essays.

 

                                                               

32.

 

Describe

 

the

 

methods

 

of

 

phonemic

 

analysis

 

and

 

identify

 

the

 

phonemes

 

from

 

the

 

following

 

data.

 

 

           

[

 

sama

 

]

        

“man”

                  

[

  

tatsa

 

]

    

“branch

 

 

          

[

 

tadsa

 

]

       

 

petal”

                

[

 

zama

  

]

   

 

seed”

 

        

[

  

kasama

 

]

   

 

flower”

              

[

  

sagama

 

]

  

“leaf”

 

 

33.

 

Describe

 

the

 

organs

 

responsible

 

for

 

speech.

 

34.

 

Distinguish

 

between

 

phone,

 

phoneme

 

and

 

allophone

 

with

 

examples.

 

35.

 

Write

 

an

 

essay

 

on

 

air

stream

 

mechanisms.

 

 

                                                                                                

(2x15=30weight)

 

 

                                                      ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 

 

 

 

 

 

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24.900 – Introduction to linguistics 

Quiz 2 – Phonetics and phonology 

April 20, 2005 

 

 
Name:   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section: 
 
 

1. Can you insert the head that is on the website?  If you can, let's ask  
them to name five articulators. 

 
 

2. Identifying phones:  Write the IPA symbol for the sound described: 

 
a. voiceless alveolar fricative 
/s/ 
 
b. voiced velar nasal 
/

N

 
c. high back rounded tense vowel 
/u/ 
 
d. voiceless alvelolar lateral liquid 
/

l8

 
e. voiceless velar stop 
/k/ 
 
f. voiced interdetnal fricative 
/

T

 
 

3. Transcription:  Transcribe the following English words and names into IPA: 

 
a. chemistry 
/

kHEmIst®i

 
b. Susan Hockfield 
/

suwz´n hAkfi…d

 
c. rushing 
/

®√SIN

 

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d. questions 
/

kw8ESn1s

 
e. Tim the Beaver 
/

tHIm D´ biv®1

 

4. Transcription:  Transcribe the following words in IPA into English. 

 
a. 

DE® A® bEdb√gz In maj p´dZQm´z 

there are bedbugs in my pajamas 

 
b. 

T®i ´v Diz bER´® w´nz wI… du TQNk ju

 

three of these better ones will do, thank you 

 
c. 

hi w´z k√v´®d wIT m√ltik√l´®d fET´®z 

he was covered with multicolored feathers 

 
d. 

dId ju b®IN D´ bejt Qnd D´ fIShUks 

did you bring the bait and the fishhooks? 

 
e. 

DIs wI… mowst lajkli sawnd st®ejndZ tu mEni lINgwIsts 

this will most likely sound strange to many linguists 

 

5. Define the following terms.  Be brief but make sure you have fully defined the concept: 
(Use examples where you can) 

 
a. phoneme 

A phoneme is a chunk of speech of conventional size (made in the image of a letter in alphabetic 
writing systems) that stands in meaningful (i.e., lexeme-differentiating) contrast to other chunks of 
speech of the same size in the same position. In English, for instance, the two chunks [b] and [p] 
are distinct phonemes, since they produce a meaning contrast in pairs such as “pet” vs. “bet”. 

 
b. allophone: 

An allophone is each of the different phonetic forms that a phoneme can take; for instance, [

l

] and 

[

] are two allophones of the phoneme [

l

] in English that are in complementary distribution. 

 
 
c. complementary distribution 

Two items are in complementary distribution if the sets of environments in which each occurs have 
a null intersection. 

 
 
d. overlapping distribution 

Two items have overlapping distribution if they can both occur in the same environment (i.e., the 
intersection of the set of environments in which each occurs is non-null). 

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e. minimal pair 

A minimal pair is a pair of forms that are identical except for a minimal difference, which is 
relevant for meaning contrast. The example given in (a) above is a minimal pair. 

 
 
 

6. What do the following sets of sounds have in common in terms of distinctive features: 

 
a.   

D v Z z 

[+voice, +continuant, -sonorant] (other features redundant) 

 
b.   

o u U ç 

 

[+vocalic, +tense, +back/round] 

 
c.   

l ´ ® m n N a w j E 

[+sonorant] 

 

7. Mohawk Stops (from Halle and Clements, Problem Book in Phonology) 

 
Mohawk, a Northern Iroquoian language spoken in upstate New York, Ontario and Quebec, has six 
phonetic oral stops (as well as a glottal stop, which we will disregard here). The bilabial stops are 
rare and for the most part restricted to recent loan words. Decide which of the following two 
hypotheses is correct: 
 
Hypothesis A: Mohawk has the six distinct oral stop phonemes /p b t d k g/. 
 
Hypothesis B: Mohawk has only three distinct oral stop phonemes in its underlying phoneme 
inventory. 
 
If you select hypothesis A, show that the inventory of stop phonemes cannot be reduced, by citing 
(near-)minimal pairs.

1

 If you select hypothesis B, show that it is correct by (a) listing the phonemes, 

and (b) listing each variant (surface reflex) of each phoneme together with the context in which it 
occurs. (Assume that the data is complete in all relevant respects.) 
 
The data have been adapted to conform to the IPA. 
 
1. 

oli˘de/ 

‘pigeon’ 8. 

oya˘gala 

‘shirt’ 

2. 

zahset 

‘hide it!’ 

9. 

ohjotsah 

‘chin’ 

                                                           

1

 Hint: to show that two sounds contrast in a given language, it’s usually enough to show that both occur (and are 

distinctive) in the same environment, even if you cannot find an exact minimal pair. Note that in English, there aren’t 
any minimal pairs involving /

T

 /and /

D

/, but it’s clear they contrast because they are distinctive in a prevocalic position, 

as in 

this

 vs. 

thick

. Environments that might be relevant for this problem and the next are simple ones such as: before a 

vowel, at the end of a word, after a stop, etc., but not things of the sort “before the vowel /i/”, “before a sequence of two 
consonants”, and so on. 

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3. 

ga˘lis 

‘stocking’ 10. 

labahbet 

‘catfish’ 

4. 

odahsa 

‘tail’ 11. 

sdu˘ha 

‘a little bit’ 

5. 

wisk 

‘five’ 12. 

dZiks 

‘fly’ 

6. 

degeni 

‘two’ 13. 

desda/n8 

‘stand up!’ (sg.) 

7. 

aplam 

‘Abraham’ 14. 

de˘zekw8 

‘pick it up!’ (sg.) 

 

It seems that [p t k] are in complementary distribution with [b d g], the latter occurring before 
vowels, the latter elsewhere. The one apparent exception to this is [

dZiks

]; there are two ways out 

of this: either [

dZ

] is treated as a single phone (an affricate), and thus is outside the scope of the 

problem, or the environment for the voiced allophone has to be extended to include the position 
preceding voiced fricatives/obstruents. 

 

8. Spanish voiced obstruents 

 
In most dialects of Spanish, the voiced stops [b d g] alternate with fricatives [

B D ƒ

] (actually, for 

most speakers these are pronounced as approximants, but disregard this). Based on the following 
data given in broad phonetic transcription, give a rule that states the process and the context in the 
most succinct manner possible, using distinctive features. Again, assume that the data are complete 
in the relevant respects. 
 
1. 

fweƒo 

‘fire’ 10. 

gEra 

‘war’ 

2. 

saNgRe 

‘blood’ 11. 

razƒaR 

‘tear’ 

3. 

aDa 

‘fairy’ 12. 

mando 

‘command’ 

4. 

urƒaR 

‘poke around’ 

13. 

lERDo 

‘sluggish’ 

5. 

duRo 

‘tough’ 14. 

aBa 

‘flap’ 

6. 

baro 

‘mud’ 15. 

esDRuxulo 

‘antepenult’ 

7. 

ezBelto 

‘slim’ 16. 

laRBa 

‘larva’ 

8. 

ambas 

‘both’ 17. 

elBaro 

‘the mud’ 

9. 

laƒEra 

‘the war’ 

18. 

dosƒEras 

‘two wars’ 

 

The voiced stops appear as fricatives if they are preceded by a vowel, or the consonants /r/ (both 
kinds – is there a difference or is this a typo?), /z/, /s/, /l/. They appear as stops after a homorganic 
nasal, and word-initially. The relevant environment for them to become fricatives seems to be 
whenever they follow a segment that has airflow through the oral tract; this is usually associated 
with the feature [+continuant]. 

 
 

8- Page
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Sample Questions: 

 

A. In this section, write the phonetics symbol(s) corresponding to the underline portion of 
the word. (2pt each)

 

 

1.  shut 

[      ] 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.  book 

[      ] 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.  teacher  [      ] 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B. Given the following description of a sound, give its corresponding phonetic symbol. (3pt 
each)

 

 
4. 

voiced velar nasal 
 

[      ] 

5. 

high back lax  

[      ] 
 

 

C. For the following symbols, given their description in terms of (i) voicing, place and 
manner of articulation (if a consonant), or (ii) height, tongue advancement and tenseness (if 
a vowel). (3pt each)

 

 

6. 

[ t ] 

____________________   ____________________  ____________________ 
 

7. 

[ o ] 

____________________   ____________________  ____________________ 

 

D. Give the conventional spelling for the following phonetically transcribed words. (2pt 
each)

 

 

8. 

[ p

h

ɪkt ] 

____________________ 
 

9. 

[ fɑks ] 

____________________ 
 

10.  [ ðə sɑʊnd əv mjuzɪk ɪz ə k

h

læsɪk muvi ]

 

____________________ 

 

E. Write the feature, not including ‘consonant’ or ‘vowel’, that each group of sounds has in 
common. (2pt each)

 

 

11.  [ p b t d k g ʔ ] 

____________________ 
 

 

12.  [ i ɪ u ʊ ] 

____________________ 

 

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